Category Archives: Data Interpretation

Understanding ISO Codes

Understanding ISO CodesThough particle counting is reported as an actual count of the number of particles (of a given size, per ml of fluid), most specifications and limits simply refer to ISO codes. The ISO codes, according to the ISO 4406:1999 standard, relate to only three different ranges of particles, ≥4 µm/≥6 µm/≥14 µm.It should…
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Causes of High Nitration

Causes of High Nitration Excessive aeration can lead to compression combustion of air molecules (microdieseling) causing thermal breakdown of oil molecules, which will increase the nitration value. In engine applications, early combustion caused by advanced timing will produce nitration by-products. These by-products form a slimy brown or reddish-brown residue. For specific information on other measured…
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Causes of High Oxidation

Causes of High Oxidation While some new oils may produce an oxidation value due to the presence of synthetic esters, increases in oxidation generally represent degradation of the fluid. The biggest driver to oxidation is heat, as the rate of reaction doubles with every 10 °C or 18 °F increase in temperature. This type of…
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Introduction to FTIR Spectroscopy

Introduction to FTIR Spectroscopy Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measures additive depletion, contaminant buildup and base stock degradation in lubricants. This type of analysis complements wear metal and other analyses. The principle of the test is that an infrared absorbance spectrum is acquired by passing an infrared beam through a thin layer of static sample.…
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Report Interpretation Tips

Report Interpretation Tips Proper report interpretation is crucial to the success of an oil analysis program; however, many users struggle to decipher the more than 40 pieces of data included on a routine report. The best procedure is to read the whole report in a methodical order, section by section. The following three tips will…
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Introduction to Particle Counting

Introduction to Particle Counting Particle counting may be performed using two different techniques, each with its own limitations and interferences, but one aspect they share in common is that they are both only a quantitative count. Neither method identifies the composition or source of the particles, they only provide a level of particles per ml…
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